MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MEDICINAL PLANT RESEARCH AND DRUG DEVELOPMENT

Course Syllabus

COURSE TITLE

Compulsory Elective

Hours of Lecture

Hours of Practical

Total Hour

Units

FIRST SEMESTER

COMPULSORY COURSES

PMR 711 Drug development from medicinal plants

C

30

0

30

2

PMR 712 Separation Techniques and bioassay methods in Natural Product Research

C

30

0

30

2

PMR 713 Conservation, Bioethics and Policy Issues in Medicinal Plant Research

C

45

0

45

3

PMR 714 Drugs from Biological Origin

C

45

0

45

3

PMR 716 Medicinal Plant Taxonomy

C

30

0

30

2

REQUIRED COURSES

PMR 717 Advanced Laboratory Course I

R

0

135

135

2

PSM 727 Basic Statistical Procedures

R

45

0

45

2

ELECTIVE COURSES

PMR 715 Application of Microscopy and Herbarium Techniques in Medicinal Plant Research

E

30

0

30

2

PMR 718 Ethnobotany and Toxicology

E

30

0

30

2

SECOND SEMESTER

COMPULSORY COURSES

PMR 721 Methods in Medicinal Plant Research and Phytochemistry

C

45

0

45

3

PMR 722 Seminar

C

30

0

30

2

PMR 723 Standardization and Quality Assurance of Natural Products

C

45

0

45

3

REQUIRED COURSES

PMR 724 Clinical pharmacognosy and nutrition therapy

R

30

0

30

2

PMR 725 Advance laboratory course II

R

0

135

135

2

ELECTIVE COURSES

PMR 726 Medicinal Plant and other Raw Materials

E

30

0

30

2

PMR 727 Plant Drugs for Common Tropical Disease Management

E

45

0

45

3

PMR 728 Cultivation and propagation of medicinal plants

E

30

0

30

2

THIRD SEMESTER

COMPULSORY COURSES

PMR 731 Project

C

 

 

 

6

PMR 732 Internship

C

 

 

 

3

FOURTH SEMESTER

COMPULSORY COURSES

PMR 731 Project

C

 

 

 

6

PMR 732 Internship

C

 

 

 

3

 

MSc Medicinal Plant Research and Drug Development

  • PMR 711 Drug development from medicinal plants 2 C

  • PMR 712 Separation Techniques and bioassay methods in Natural Product Research  2 C

  • PMR 713 Conservation, Bioethics and Policy Issues in Medicinal Plant Research  3 C
  • PMR 714 Drugs from Biological Origin 3 C
  • PMR 715 Application of Microscopy and Herbarium Techniques in Medicinal Plant Research 2 E
  • PMR 716 Medicinal Plant Taxonomy 2 C
  • PMR 717 Advanced Laboratory Course I 2 R
  • PMR 718 Ethnobotany and Toxicology 2E
  • PMR 721 Methods in Medicinal Plant Research and Phytochemistry 3 C
  • PMR 722 Seminar 2C
  • PMR 723 Standardization and Quality Assurance of Natural Products 3C
  • PMR 724 Clinical pharmacognosy and nutrition therapy 2R
  • PMR 725 Advance laboratory course II 2 R
  • PMR 726 Medicinal Plant and other Raw Materials 2 E
  • PMR 727 Plant Drugs for Common Tropical Disease Management 3 E
  • PMR 728 Cultivation and propagation of medicinal plants 2 E
  • PMR 731 Project 6C
  • PMR 732 Internship 3C
  • PSM 727 Basic Statistical Procedures 2R

PMR 711: Drug development from medicinal plants

3 Compulsory

Course description :

This course will give an overview of drug development from medicinal plants with therapeutic uses.

Course purpose :

The purpose of the course is to expose the students to common medicinal plants in Africa as well as various possible drug dosage forms available.

Course Topics :

  • Overview of drug development from medicinal plants
  • Pharmacognosy of herbs in relation to healing;
  • Common African medicinal plants and their uses (minimum of 50 plants)
  • Identification, collection and processing of medicinal plants, 
  • Presentation of herbal products: Herbal liquid dosage forms (decoction, emulsion, suspension, tincture, lotion, syrup etc); Herbal solid dosage forms (powder, capsule, tablet, medicinal soap, suppository, ointment, etc);
  • Simple quality-assurance and validation tests and in-process quality monitoring for efficacy and safety; preservation, labeling, packaging, doses; stability/expiry, shelf-life, storage of finished products and general signs of deterioration: effects of light, heat, air, bacteria, insects, moulds, rodents;
  • Herbal business and herbal  processing technology
  • Good Herbal Preparation Practice (GPP);
  • Herbal medicine regulation and relevant Agencies

Recommended Texts:

  1. OmboonVallisata and Suleiman M. Olimat (2012). Drug discovery research in Pharmacognosy
  2. Mukund S. Chorghade (2006). Drug Discovery and Development John Wiley & sons.
  3. P. Krogsgaard-Larsen, S. Brogger Christensen, Helmer Kofod  (1985) Natural Products and Drug Development. Raven Pr
  4. K. Tayung, A. Puratchikody and S. Ramakrishnan  (2014).  Natural Products - Drug Development.  Studium Press India Pvt Ltd
  5. S. S. Agrawal and M. Paridhavi (2013) Herbal Drug Technology
  6. H. Panda. The Complete Technology Book on Herbal Beauty Products with Formulations and Processes. Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.

PMR 712   Separation Techniques and bioassay methods in Medicinal plants Research

3 Compulsory

Course Description:

The course will expose students to the various separation techniques and bioassay methods used in medicinal plants research.

Course Purpose :

To acquaint candidates with the knowledge of the different separation techniques and bioassay methods that will be applicable in their research in medicinal plant research.

Course Topics :

  • Methods for screening of bioactive compounds.
  • Bioassay guided phytochemical separations relevant to drug discovery from nature.
  • Processes that lead from plants to pharmacologically active pure compounds.
  • Principles of extraction, detection, isolation and purification of secondary metabolites of medicinal interest.
  • Advantages of molecules that enhance separation. Factors affecting resolution and sensitivity in various chromatographic systems.
  • Advanced techniques in chromatography.
  • Applications to natural product research (to quantification, purity etc)

Recommended Texts :

  1. AshintoshKar. Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis. New Age International.
  2. ISBN: 978-81-224-2718-9
  3. Atta-ur-Rahman. M.IqbalChoudharyandWilliam J.Thomson(2005) Bioassay Techniques for Drug Development. Harwood academic publisher
  4. Satyajit D. SarkerZahid Latif, and Alexander I. Gray  (2005). Natural Products Isolation
  5. Journal of natural products
  6. Journal of Chromatography

PMR 713 Conservation, Bioethics and Policy Issues in Medicinal Plant Research

3 Compulsory

Course Description:

This course will include topics relating to conservation, bioethics and policies as it concerns medicinal plant research.

Course Purpose :

The purpose of this course is to explore, and discuss emerging issues on conservation, bioethics and policies relating to medicinal plants especially in the African context.

Course Topics :

  • Biodiversity and conservation
  • Endangered medicinal plants: Protection of endangered species
  • Need for conservation of African medicinal plants: International Trade; Local Market; Health and Livelihood 
  • Environmental/Socio-Economic Interface;
  • Bioethical and Legal Dimensions in conservation;
  • Bioprospecting, Biopiracy and the Interests of the Country of Origin in protecting her Genetic Resources and Medicinal Plant;
  • Scientific Development, Cooperation and Technology Transfer; the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • Protection and Utilization of Traditional Knowledge
  • Practices and Innovations of Intellectual Property, Patents and Economic Dimensions
  • Fingerprinting of economic plants eg using HPLC

Recommended Texts :

  1. OlayiwolaAkerele, Vernon Heywood and Hugh Synge (2009). Conservation of medicinal plants. Cambridge University press.
  2. Chopra A.K (2007). Medicinal plants: Conservation, cultivation and utilization. Daya Publishing House, India.
  3. Journal of Bioderversity
  4. Journal of medicinal plant conservation
  5. Bioderversity and conservation

PMR 714   Drugs of Biological Origin

3 Compulsory

Course Description :

This course will expose students to different classes of secondary metabolites.

Course Purpose:

The course is to provide basic understanding of biological origin of natural drugs.

Course Topics:

  • Microorganisms, plant and animal kingdom as sources of novel bioactive natural products.
  • Medicinal plant phytochemistry: Primary and secondary metabolites (Alkaloids, terpenoids, anthraquinones, etc)
  • Biosynthetic pathways leading to secondary metabolites. 

Recommended Texts:

  1. Samelsonn G. (2015). Drugs of Natural Product origin- A Textbook. Swedish Pharmaceutical Press
  2. Ansari S.H (2008). Essentials of Pharmacognosy. Birla Publications, India.
  3. Tringali C. (2011). Bioactive compounds from Natural sources: natural products as lead compounds in drug discovery. CRS press
  4. Phytochemistry journal
  5. Journal of Natural Products

PMR 715  Application of Microscopy and Herbarium Techniques in Medicinal Plant Research

3 Elective

Course description :

This course will expose students to microscopy and herbarium principles.

Course purpose :

This course will give an in-depth understanding of microscopy and herbarium techniques and  their role in medicinal plant research.

Course Topics :

  • Preparation of Herbarium specimens.
  • Microscopy and advanced histological techniques.
  • Quantitative microscopy and photomicrography.
  • Voucher specimens and plant authentication
  • Applications to drug evaluation with specific examples from official pharmacopoeia drugs (e.g. African Pharmacopoeia, West African Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Nigerian Herbal Pharmacopoeia) and other African medicinal plants.

Recommended Texts

  1. Badal, S and Delgoda, R (ed) (2016) Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategy. Elsevier publisher
  2. Wondafrosh M. (2008). A Preliminary guide to plant Collection, Identification, and Herbarium techniques.
  3. Singh HB and Subramaniam B (2008). Field manual on Herbarium Techniques. Vedam book International
  4. Steven E. Ruzin, (1999), Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy ISBN 0-19-508956-
  5. Journal of Microscopy

PMR 716 Medicinal Plant Taxonomy

2 Compulsory

Course Description :

The course will expose students to medicinal plant taxonomy, both classical and chemotaxonomy

Course Purpose :

Students will be able to appreciate the classification of medicinal plants and its importance to biological activity.

Course Topics :

  • Classical Taxonomy:
  • Classification of plants (Origin, history etc)
  • Principles of classification;
  • Systems of Taxonomy (Natural and Artificial);
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy; Subspecific Taxonomy;
  • Flower as a reproductive unit in Angiosperms,
  • Conserved plant names.
  • Use of flora keys for plant identification.
  • Chemotaxonomy:
  • Contribution of secondary metabolites and DNA as chemotaxonomic Markers:
  • Computerization in taxonomy

Recommended text :

  1. Stace C.A (2008). Plant taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold publishers, UK
  2. Sivarajan V.V and Robson NPK (1991). Introduction to the principles of plant Taxonomy. Cambridge University press, UK
  3. Besse, P (ed) (2014). Molecular plant Taxonomy. Springer Science NY
  4. Sharma, O.P (2011). Plant Taxonomy 2E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education
  5. European journal of Taxonomy
  6. Journal of Taxonomy and Biodiversity Research
  7. Journal of plant systematics and evolution

PMR 717  Advanced Laboratory Techniques (I)

2 Required

Course Description :

This course gives students experience of all required techniques in medicinal plant research in the laboratory.  It will be raw material focused

Course Purpose:

The purpose is to develop research skills and competencies in the students.

Course Topics:

Practical work designed to illustrate the principle underlying methods discussed in theory to improve the candidate’s practical ability and presentation of reports  (Include all courses contributing to this course)

Recommended texts:

  1. Harborne JB (1984) Phytochemical Methods 2ndedn, Chapman and Hall, London
  2. Bernard Fried and Joseph ShermaThin-Layer Chromatography: Techniques and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, CRC Press, London
  3. Wagner H and Bladt S (1996) Plant Drug Analysis, A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas, Springer-Verlag, Berlin

PMR 718 Ethnobotany and Toxicology

2 E

Course description :

The course will examine indigenous knowledge of medicinal and poisonous plants in Africa

Course purpose :

To acquire knowledge of traditional medical practices in various communities in Africa with particular reference to herbal therapy and identify medicinal and toxic plants

Course Topics:

  • Collection and documentation of herbal recipes from practitioners
  • Classification of medicinal plants and herbal recipes
  • Identification of poisonous plants
  • Herbal treatment of poisoning
  • Identification of psychoactive, molluscicides, insecticides plants
  • Basic principles of assessing toxicity

Recommended Texts:

  1. Neuwuger, HD (1996). African Ethnobothany, Poisons and Drgus: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicity. Chapman and Hall GMBH
  2. Kurt, TL (2004). A textbook of Modern Toxicology. Wiley-Inter Science, NJ, USA.
  3. Jones, CJ (2000). Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology of herbal Products. Humana Press, NJ, USA.
  4. Balick, MJ and Cox, PA (1996). Plant, People and Culture: The Science of Ethnobotany. Scientific American Library, NY, USA
  5. Journal of Medicinal Plants
  6. Ethnobotanical leaflets
  7. Journal of Ethnopharmacology

PMR 721 Spectroscopy of biologically active products

4 Compulsory

Course description :

The course will focus on the different methods for identifying chemical constituents in medicinal plant.

Course purpose :

The purpose is to identify active ingredients in medicinal plants using spectroscopic techniques.

To quantify and standardize herbal preparation.

Course topics :

Spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV, NMR, MS etc.) in structural elucidation and assessment of natural product purity and quality.

Recommended Texts :

  1. Sarker SD, Latif Z and Gray AI (eds)  (2006) Natural Products Isolation,2ndedn. Humana Press, Totowa, .
  2. Heinrich M, Barnes J, Gibbons S and Williamson EM (2004) Fundamental of Pharmacognosy and phytotherapy, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh
  3. Badal, S and Delgoda, R (ed.) Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategy.  Elsevier;
  4. A.J. Baker & T. Cairns Spectroscopic Techniques in Organic Chemistry
  5. Journal of spectroscopy

PMR 722  Seminar

2 Compulsory

Course description :

The course is a weekly seminar which all candidates must attend and participate in. It involves presentation on both reviewed articles and original research topics.

Course purpose :

The course is to acquaint students with current topics in medicinal plant research and drug development as well as expose them to relevant researches in the field

Course topics :

  • Designed to acquaint the candidate with current and relevant research topics in medicinal plant research and drug development.

Recommended Text:

  1. Badal, S and Delgoda, R (ed.) Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategy.  Elsevier;
  2. Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy 15th edition, WB Saunders
  3. Journal of ethnopharmacology
  4. Journal of medicinal plant research
  5. Biologics: Target and Therapy

PMR 723  Standardization and Quality Assurance of Herbal Products  

4 Compulsory

Description :

This course will address standardization and quality assurance of herbal products   

Course purpose :

This course is aimed at introducing students to the importance of incorporating standards and quality into herbal products.

Course topics :

  • Commercial requirements and general methods of evaluation of vegetable, microbial and animal drugs.
  • Information and standards with respect to identity, safety, purity, potency, etc of herbal products.
  • Pharmacpoiecal standards and specifications (Organoleptic, microscopical, physico-chemical and biological methods of evaluation, determinations and relevance of ash, extractive values etc. Moisture content,).
  • Monograph compilation
  • Prospects and problems of standardization of herbal remedies.

Recommended texts:

  1. Lui, WJH (2010). Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Methods: Identification, Analysis, Bioassay, Pharmaceutical and Clinical studies. John Wiley and Sons.
  2. Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy 15th edition, WB Saunders,
  3. WHO guideline for Standardization of herbal drugs. (who.int/medicinedoc/documents/14878e/pdf
  4. Heinrich, M (2004). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. Elsevier
  5. The Pharma Innovation Journal International
  6. Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation

PMR 724 Clinical pharmacognosy and nutritional therapy

2 Required

Course description :

The course will expose students to training in diagnosis and herbal treatment procedures

Course purpose :

To teach students herbal practice under various conditions in traditional clinics.

Course Topics :

  • Introduction to, Scope and Role of clinical pharmacognosy
  • Challenges of clinical pharmacognosy
  • Diagnosis, prevention and herbal treatment strategies. 
  • Case taking, clinical practice and examinations
  • Drug and herb/food interactions. 
  • Patient Referral Systems, immunization,
  • Toxicity, side effects, contraindications, and precautions. 
  • Practice limitations.
  • Food classification and eating habits, balanced diets, minerals, vitamins, fruits and vegetables
  • Various cultural misconception bordering on nutrition and scientific basis of some cultural practices
  • The use of nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals
  • Nutritional assessment and the links between diet and health
  • Preventive healthcare; consideration of preventive strategies including personal hygiene and cleanliness, environmental sanitation, maintaining good nutrition, good life style and healthy social behaviour

Recommended texts :

  1. Ahamad M., Mehjaben A., Jahan N., and Sahed F (2016). Text book of Clinical Pharmacognosy. http:/www.pjpps.com
  2. Burton BT and Foster WR (1998). Human Nutrition: A textbook of Human Nutrition in Health and Disease. Mcgraw-Hill
  3. Bagetta C., Cosentino M., Corasaniti MT., Sakurada S (2011). Clinical Pharmacognosy: Herbal Medicine Developmant and Validation of Plant-Derived Medicines for Human Health. CRC Press.

PMR 725 Advance laboratory technique (II)

2 Required

Course description :

This course gives students hand-on experience of all required techniques in medicinal plant research in the laboratory.  It will be focused on drug development

Course purpose :

The purpose is to develop research skills and competencies in the students.

Course topics :

  • Practical work designed to illustrate the principle underlying methods discussed in theory to improve the candidate’s practical ability and presentation of reports (include courses contributing to this course)

Recommended texts :

  1. Harborne JB (1984) Phytochemical Methods 2ndedn, Chapman and Hall, London
  2. Bernard Fried and Joseph ShermaThin-Layer Chromatography: Techniques and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, CRC Press, London
  3. Wagner H and Bladt S (1996) Plant Drug Analysis, A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas, Springer-Verlag, Berlin

PMR 726 Medicinal Plant and other Raw Materials

3 Elective

Course description :

This course will examine medicinal plants and other natural products as sources of raw material for drug production.                        

Course purpose :

The aim of the course is to expose students to the potential of plants and other natural products as sources of raw materials as well as develop in them the possibility of tapping into the economic prospects of these raw materials. 

Course topics :

  • Natural products as sources of drug and raw materials.
  • Factors involved in the production of drugs from natural sources.
  • Exploitation of Traditional medicine for raw materials.
  • Problems and prospects of sourcing raw materials from local medicinal plant, animal and mineral substances for the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Commercial requirements. Field Trips.

Recommended text :

  1. Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy 15th edition, WB Saunders,
  2. Herbal pharmacopoeia
  3. Botanical Drug Development: Guidance for Industry (2016). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

PMR 727   Plant Drugs for Disease Management 

3 Elective

Course description :

The course will focus on herbal drug on management options on common diseases.

Course purpose :

The aim of the course is to equip students with knowledge that will help address common tropical ailments using the traditional herbal approach.

Course topics :

  • Herbal therapy: anticancer; antimalarials, laxatives (including the role of vegetables and fruits), anti-infectives (e.g. against measles, bacterial,fungal,etc), anti-tussives, anti- diarrhea, antispasmodics, anti-haemorrhoid, analgesics, antihelminthics, antischistosomiasis,  anticonvulsants, antipyretics, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensives, antisickling etc.
  • Examples of plant drugs in current use in the existing conventional Pharmacopoeia (e.g. ergometrine, atropine, quinine, etc.)

Recommended text :

  1. Burkill HM The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa , Volumes 1-6, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  2. Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy 15th edition, WB Saunders,
  3. Herbal pharmacopoeia
  4. Heinrich M, Barnes J, Gibbons S and Williamson EM (2004) Fundamental of Pharmacognosy and phytotherapy, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh
  5. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants I and II

PMR 728 Propagation and Cultivation of medicinal plants

2. Elective

Course description :

Cultivation of medicinal plants for herbal practice and commercial purposes.

Course purpose :

Students will be equipped with the knowledge of cultivating medicinal plants for sustainable development.

Course topics :

  • Cultivation and plant propagation
  • Tissue culture techniques and Genetics
  • Possibility and prospects of medicinal plant production in Africa
  • Methods of cultivation and propagation
  • Good agricultural practice for medicinal plant
  • Threats to propagation and environmental factors affecting growth (e.g. soil, climate, genetics) for high quality crude drugs
  • Post-harvest preparation of crude drugs e.g. harvesting, collection, significance of time of collection of drugs with regard to quality of crude drugs; drying, garbling, packaging, immediate and long term treatments with preservatives for proper storage, extraction
  • Medicinal plant garden and herbarium

Recommended texts :

  1. Evans WC. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy 15th edition, WB Saunders,
  2. Chandra, S, Lata, H. and Varma A. (2013). Biotechnology for medicinal plants. Springer.
  3. WHO (1993). Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants. www.who.int/medocinedocs/7150e/s
  4. WHO (2003). Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for medicinal plants.
  5. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic plants
  6. International Journal of Medicinal Plants

PMR 731 Project

6 Compulsory

Course description :

This is the candidate’s research project as decided by him/her along with the supervisor, a proposal of which would have been presented to and approved by the department.

Course purpose :

To give the candidate an experiential opportunity of proper medicinal plant research, reporting and publishing.


PMR 732 Internship

3 Compulsory

Course description :

To have experience in the practise of medicinal plant research and herbal medicine

Course purpose :

To build confidence in graduates in employing scientific methods in investigation of medicinal plants and their potential economic uses