MASTER OF SCIENCE

Veterinary Vaccine Production and Quality Control

Course title

Core / Required / Elective

Hours of Lecture

Hours of Practical

Total Hour

Course Unit

FIRST SEMESTER

PVP711 Advanced Bacteriology

C

15

90

105

3

PVP713  Advanced Virology

C

15

90

105

3

PVP715 Molecular biology

R

30

0

30

2

PVP717 Mycology

R

15

90

105

3

PVP719 Advanced Immunology

C

30

45

75

3

PVP 701 Microbes in our environment

E

15

45

60

2

PVP721 Advanced Parasitology

R

15

45

75

2

TOTAL

 

 

 

 

18

SECOND SEMESTER

PVP710 Vaccinology & Vaccine quality control

C

15

45

60

2

PVP712 Viral Vaccine Production

C

30

45

75

3

PVP714 Bacterial Vaccine Production

C

30

45

75

3

PVP716 Quality Management system & Laboratory Animal Management

C

30

45

75

3

PVP718 Research Methods and Experimental Design 

R

30

0

30

2

PVP722 Handling and Shipment of dangerous goods / Cold Chain

R

30

0

30

2

PVP 702 Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity

R

15

45

 

2

PVP704 Vaccine registration  process

R

30

0

30

2

TOTAL

    

19

THIRD SEMESTER

PVP721 Internship in Veterinary Vaccine Production and Quality Control

C

0

270

270

6

TOTAL

    

6

FOURTH SEMESTER

PVP720  Seminar:

C

30

0

30

2

PVP724 Project:

C

0

270

 

6

TOTAL

    

8

 

Veterinary Vaccine Production and Quality control courses

S/no.

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

Course Status

1

PVP710

Vaccinology and Quality Control of Vaccines 

2

C

2

PVP711

Advanced Bacteriology

3

C

3

PVP712

Viral Vaccine Production   

3

C

4

PVP713

Advanced Virology      

3

C

5

PVP714

Bacterial Vaccine Production 

3

C

6

PVP715

Molecular Biology 

2

R

7

PVP716

Quality management system and laboratory Animal management

3

R

8

PVP717

Advanced Mycology

3

R

9

PVP718

Research Methods and Experimental Design 

2

R

10

PVP719

Advanced Immunology

3

C

11

PVP720

Seminar 

2

C

12

PVP721

Internship in Vaccine Production

6

C

13

PVP722

Handling and shipping of dangerous good/ Cold chains

2

R

14

PVP724

Project: 

6

C

15

PVP701

Microbes in our environment 

2

E

16

PVP702

Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity

2

R

17

PVP 703

Advanced Parasitology

2

R

18

PVP 704

Vaccine Registration Process

2

R

 

SYLLABUS


PVP710 VACCINOLOGY [3 C.U]

Course description:  

This course will involve series of lectures on vaccine, vaccine development and its use.

Course purpose: 

This course will provide students with in-depth knowledge on vaccine development and mechanism of vaccine protection.

Course topics:

  • History of vaccination
  • Type of Vaccines
  • Pathway to vaccine development
  • Mechanism of vaccine protection
  • Vaccine construction
  • Measurement to immune response to vaccination
  • Vaccine efficacy and safety
  • Adjuvant  in making vaccines immunogenic
  • DNA vaccines

PVP711 ADVANCED BACTERIOLOGY [3 C.U]

Course description:

This course will provide an overview of bacteria of Veterinary importance at an advanced level.

Course purpose:

To equip the students with knowledge in bacteriology for use in bacterial vaccine production and quality control.

Course topics:

  • General principle of bacteria taxonomy
  • Classification of bacteria
  • Characteristics and structures of bacteria
  • Overview of bacterial diseases of animals including zoonosis
  • Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases of domesticated and wild animals
  • Bacterial genetics
  • General biochemical background of bacteria.
  • Isolation and Identification methods of common bacteria of veterinary importance.
  • Pathogenesis of bacterial diseases including molecular basis of host-bacterial relationship.

Recommended text:

  1. Microbiology by Simon Baker et al. Tailor and Francis (Publisher)
  2. Medical Microbiology by Robert Cruikshank et al. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh
  3. Text-Book of Bacteriology by Carl Fraenkel. Forgotten Books, 2012
  4. Journal of Bacteriology

PVP712 VIRAL VACCINE PRODUCTION [3 C.U]

Course Description:

This course will provide a step by step teaching on viral vaccine production.  

Course purpose:

Students will acquire theoretical knowledge and practical skills in viral vaccine production.

Course topics:

  • Preparation of seed virus stock
  • Generation of viral sub-units and antigens
  • Inactivation/Purification of viral antigens
  • Formulation of viral vaccine.
  • Lyophilisation processes
  • Product purity, safety and potency testing.  
  • Packaging

Recommended text:

  1. Vaccines (Sixth edition). ISBN: 978-1-4557-0090-5 Copyright @ 2017 Elsevier B. V.
  2. The Virus and the Vaccine: Contaminated Vaccine, Deadly Cancers and Government Neglect. ISBN – 13: 978-0312342722: ByDebbie Bookchin& Jim Schumacher
  3. Influenza and Influenza Vaccine: by Raymond A. Strikas, MD, MPH; CDC, (Pink Book) webinar series, September 7, 2016

PVP713 Advanced Virology [3 C.U]

Course description:

This involves teaching of viruses, animal diseases and laboratory methods used for diagnosis.

Course purpose:

To prepare students with knowledge in the manipulation of viruses for vaccine production and quality control.

Course topics:

  • Understanding the principle and uses of different medium for viral cultivation
  • Classification of viruses
  • Characteristics and structures of viruses.  
  • Isolation, cultivation, replication, concentration and purification of viruses.   
  • Pathogenesis of viral diseases including molecular basis of host-viral relationship
  • Serological, molecular and other techniques used for viral identification.

Recommended text:

  1. Fields VIROLOGY. David M. Knipe et al (Editors). By Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  2. A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology D.J. Wise, G.R. Carter and E. F. Flores
  3. Cunningham, C. H. (latest edition).  ALaboratoryGuideinVirology, 7th ed. Burgess Minneapolis MN.
  4. Journal of Virology

PVP714 BACTERIAL VACCINE PRODUCTION [3 C.U]

Course description:

To provide the student with detailed processes on bacterial vaccine production

Course purpose:

To enable students have theoretical knowledge and practical exposure in bacterial vaccine production

Course topics:

  • Preparation of seed bacteria stock
  • Generation of bacterial sub-units and antigens
  • Inactivation/Purification of bacterial antigens
  • Formulation of the vaccine.
  • Lyophilisation processes
  • Product purity, safety and potency testing.  
  • Packaging and storage

Recommended Text:

  1. Bacterial Vaccines: Edited by Rene Germanier, Academic Press
  2. The Vaccine Book: Edited by Barry R. Bloom and Paul-Henri Lambert, Academic Press
  3. Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases: By Alan D. T. Barrett & Lawrence R. Stanberry. Academic Press

PVP715 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS [2 C.U]

Course description:

This course provides knowledge onmolecular basis of existence of microbes and bioinformatics

Course purpose:

To enable students understand molecular basis of microbial genetic activities in relation to vaccine production and quality control.

To impact knowledge in bioinformatics for microbial analysis and manipulations.

Course topics:

  • The central dogma
  • Growth and its control, genetic organization of the organisms’ protein production
  • The use of PCR and DNA/RNA sequencing.
  • Recombinant DNA technology
  • Bioinformatics: Application of Bioinformatics  Bioinformatic Software and data manipulation, GenBank, Nucleic acid amplification and sequencing, use of Gene Sequences Analysis software (BioEdit®, MEGA, CLC etc), Phylogenetic tree construction and analysis.

Recommended Text:

  1. Molecular Cell Biology: (Lodish, Molecular Cell Biology) by Lodishet al.
  2. Molecular Biology of the Cell: 5th Edition. ISBN – 13: 978-0815341055
  3. “The Sequence:” by Kevin Davies [Weidenfeld; ISBN 0297646982
  4. Bioinformatics Algorithms: An Active Learning Approach Vol. 1&2 by Phillip Compeau and Pavel Pevzner

PVP716 LABORATORY ANIMAL AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM [3 C.U]

Course description:

This course provides teaching on the application of laboratory quality management system and animal care.

Course purpose:

At the end of the course, student will be familiar with the implementation of quality laboratory operations.

Course topics:

  • Introduction to quality manual.
  • Quality policy
  • Organization
  • Management of Lab equipment
  • Purchasing and inventory
  • Process management
  • Assessment/audit
  • Customer focus

Recommended text:

  1. WHO quality manual 2013
  2. Management of Laboratory Animal Care and Use Programs: Edited by Mark A. Suckow, Fred  A. Douglas and Robert H. Weichbrod; CRC Press
  3. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare: By Sarah Wolfensohn and Maggie Lloyd.  4th Edition. ISBN – 13: 978-0470655498. Wiley-Blackwell

PVP717 MYCOLOGY [3 C.U]

Course description:

Course Involves collection of specimen, isolation and characterization of fungi.

Course purpose:

This is to enable students monitor vaccine products for fungi contamination and to train students on the advances in vaccine production of fungi.

Course topics:

  • Classification and general characteristics of pathogenic fungi: Special reference to fungal contaminants.
  • Reproduction in fungi.
  • Isolation and identification of fungi:  Emphasis on media, staining and diagnostic techniques
  • Beneficial and detrimental effects of fungi.
  • Possible mycotic contaminants of vaccines of Veterinary and Medical importance and there prevention.
  • Prevention of mycotic contaminations.
  • Possible advances in vaccine production

Recommended Text:

  1. Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology: Second Edition by Miguel Ulloa and Richard T. Hanlin
  2. Medical Mycology: A self-Instructional Text by Kathleen S. Blevins PhD MLS (ASCP) CLS (NCA)
  3. Introductory Mycology: 2nd Edition; By Constantine J. Alexopoulos

PVP718 RESEARCH METHODS AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  [2 C.U]

Course description:

This course will provide knowledge of statistics in human biology and medicine and allows revision of basic concepts of probability and descriptive statistics. Others include significance test methods based on the normal distribution, analysis of variance, regression and correlation. The confidence intervals, formal and informal tests assumption, test for discrete data, contingency tables, and basic distribution free methods will be taught.

Course purpose:

This course is to enable acquire statistical knowledge for their use in processing and interpretation of data for clinical and research uses.

Course topics:

  • Statistics,
  • Study designs,
  • Scales of measurement, quality of measurement, statistical variable/data,
  • Qualitative and quantitative data sources.
  • Sampling methods and sample size determination,
  • Data organization: Statistics Charts, Tables, Graphs Frequency Tables, Frequency distribution;
  • Histogram, Stem and leaf plot, box plot;
  • Summary indices: Mean, Median, Modes Variance Standard Deviation;
  • Probability distributions: Normal, Binomial, Poisson distribution, Descriptive statistics, frequency table, tables for qualitative and quantitative data, diagrams, types of diagrams.
  • Data summarization: Summary indices, measures of central tendency and dispersion;
  • Test of statistical hypothesis; Confidence intervals; Parametric and non-parametric tests: Z-test for proportions, Chi-square test, Fischer’s exact test and T-test. Analysis of variance, Regression and correlation, Spearman rank and Kendal correlation.

Recommended text:

  1. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches by John W. Creswell
  2. Basic of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory by Juliet M. Corbin; 2014

PVP719 ADVANCED IMMUNOLOGY [3 C.U]

Course description:

This course will provide knowledge on various topics of clinical immunology                                                                                                                                                                     

Course purpose:

To enable students understand innate and acquired protective processes in livestock and poultry. Provide skills and techniques for use in the laboratory for the diagnosis of animal diseases.

Course topics:

  • Overview of immunity in animals.
  • Body defence mechanism
  • Humoral and cellular immunity
  • Complement system
  • Techniques for measuring immunity
  • Hypersensitivity reactions
  • Immune mechanism to specific pathogens
  • Immune response to parasites, bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.
  • Immunotherapy/Immunoprophylaxis

Recommended texts:

  1. Avian Immunology: Fred Davison, Bernd Kaspers and Karel A. Schat (Editors). ELSEVIER.
  2. Introduction: Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology & Infectious Diseases On-line: by University of South Carolina School of Medicine
  3. The Immune System: 4th Edition by Peter Parham. ISBN- 13: 978-0815344667
  4. How the Immune System works: 5th Edition. ISBN-13: 978-1118997772

PVP720 SEMINAR [2 C.U]

Course description:

Assignments are given to candidates on topics relevant to Vaccine production, vaccination and quality control for detailed study and analysis and presentation in form of seminars for scored assessment.       

Course purpose:

Is to teach students on rudiments of presentations, organisation of subjects of scientific interest and expose them to problems associated to vaccines.

Course topics:

To be assigned by supervisors and based on student’s interest.


PVP721 INTERNSHIP IN VACCINE PRODUCTION [6 C.U]

Course description:

Four to six months attachment to a veterinary vaccine production centre, laboratory or institute.

To expose students to hands-on experience in all aspects of vaccine production 

Course topics:

  • Processes of vaccine production
  • Quality control of end products

Recommended text:

  1. Manual for Diagnostic and vaccine for terrestrial animals [OIE]
  2. Basic Laboratory manual for the small scale production and testing of I-2 Newcastle Disease vaccine Sally Grines 2002
  3. Vaccine Manual: The production and quality control of Veterinary Vaccines for use in Developing countries Noel Mowat& Mark Rweyemamu.

PVP722 HANDLING AND SHIPMENT OF DANGEROUS GOODS / COLD CHAIN [3 C.U]

Course description:

This course will teach students the handling, packaging and shipment of biologicals and cold chain.

Course purpose:

Students will provide students with expertise in the management and shipment of biologicals and cold chain.

Course topics:

  • Classification of dangerous materials
  • Characterization of dangerous materials
  • Packaging and packaging materials
  • The cold chain
  • IATA regulations on the shipment of dangerous materials
  • Documentation and transport of dangerous materials

Recommended text:

  1. IATA manuals
  2. OIE Manuals
  3. WHO manuals

PVP724 PROJECT [6 C.U]

Course description:

Detailed investigation and documentation of any subject of clinical interest on vaccine or vaccine production and presentation in form of Thesis for both internal and external assessments.

Course purpose:

To familiarize students with research in vaccine production and quality control.

Course topics:

Student to select project topic in any area of vaccine production and quality control.


PVP701 MICROBES IN OUR ENVIRONMENT  [2 C.U]

Course description:

The course will teach students on the type of microorganisms that are present in the environment.

Course purpose:

Students will acquire knowledge on microorganisms that are potentially harmful, useful as well as those that constitute contaminants in vaccine production.

Course topics:

  • Characteristics of bacteria and their classification
  • Characteristics of fungi and their classification
  • Overview of bacteria and fungi that are found in water, air and animal body
  • Role of microbes as commensals in animals
  • Isolation and Identification methods used for these microbes.

Recommended text:

  1. Microbiology: by Simon Baker et al. Tailor and Francis (Publisher)
  2. Introduction: Immunology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology & Infectious Diseases On-line: by University of South Carolina School of Medicine
  3. Medical Microbiology: by Robert Cruikshank et al. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh
  4. Journal of Bacteriology

PVP 702 LABORATORY BIOSAFETY AND BIOSECURITY [2 C.U]

Course description:

This course will teach students best practices in the laboratory and management of bio-risk.

Course purpose:

To enable students acquire skills and knowledge in biosafety and biosecurity

Course topics:

  • Introduction to laboratory safety
  • Good laboratory practices
  • Use of personnel protective equipment
  • Laboratory bio-containment
  • Decontamination
  • Waste management and disposal
  • Laboratory hazards
  • Safety equipment in the laboratory
  • Bio risk assessment and mitigation

Recommended text:

  1. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories: 5th Edition CDC
  2. AU-PANVAC Biosafety manual
  3. OIE Terrestrial manual for diagnostic tests and vaccine

PVP703 ADVANCED PARASITOLOGY [2 C.U]

Course description:

This course provides teaching on animal parasites, and their diseases.

Course purpose:

Will enable students acquire knowledge on parasites and their use in vaccine production

Course Topics:

  • Characteristics of relevant parasites
  • Principles of vaccine manufacture using parasites
  • Production of Parasitic vaccines
  • Quality control and challenges in parasitic vaccines
  • DNA, Recombinant and sub-unit parasitic vaccine

Recommended text:

  1. OIE Terrestrial manual for diagnostic tests and vaccine
  2. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. Soulsby, E.J.L.Billiere, Tindall and Cassel, London.
  3. Veterinary Parasitology By Urquhart, G. M., Armour, J. Duncan, J. L., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W. Longman Scientific and Technical, UK Ltd
  4. Journal of Parasitology
  5. Veterinary Parasitology Journal

PVP704 VACCINE REGISTRATION [2 C.U]

Course description:

This course will teach student how to prepare dossier for vaccine registration.

Course purpose:

Enable students to acquire skills on the requirement and documentation for vaccine registration 

Course topic:

  • Structure of registration dossier
  • Product information
  • Quality, manufacture and control
  • Safety
  • Efficacy
  • Bibliography and references
  • Harmonization of vaccine registration

Recommended text:

  1. OIE Terrestrial manual for diagnostic tests and vaccine
  2. Working together to uniformly license Veterinary Medicine in East Africa.